India, the land of great civilization, has a history of more than 5000 years with diversity rather than unity in every aspect of human life, strived a lot and attained a proper place among the community of nations. Indian polity started from Manu passed through hundreds of benevolent monarch’s and rulers reached the position what we see today. The Arthasastra of Kautilya was the most important political treatise which India has so far produced. It deals comprehensively every aspect of Indian polity as we do not possess any other period before Akbar the Great. English East India Company constituted to promote trade with India was firmly established its domination in India by 1600 AD when the Mughals were at the height of their power and glory. Within a century the Mughal power became degenerated and disintegrated.
The Britishers took advantage of this situation, tightened their grip over India with a series of legislations starting with the Regulation Act of 1773. Followed by the Pitts India Act 1784, the
Act of 1786- The Charter Act of 1793, the Charter Act of 1813- the Charter Act of 1833 and the Charter Act of 1853 which passed by the British Parliament. Followed by this, first War of Indian Independence 1857, the British Parliament adopted the Government of India Act 1858 by which the British Government took over the administration of India. As a continuation, the Indian Council Act of 1861 and Indian Council Act 1892 were passed by the British Parliament for administrative convenience.
Indian Politics take place within the framework of its constitution, as India is a federal parliamentary democratic republic, in which the President of India is the head of the country and the Prime Minister of India is the head of the government. India follows the dual polity system, i.e. a double government which consists of the central authority at the centre and states at the periphery. The constitution defines the organization powers and limitations of both central and state governments, and it is well-recognised, rigid and considered supreme; i.e. laws of the nation must conform to it.
There is a provision for a bicameral Union legislature consisting of an Upper House, i.e. Rajya Sabha, which represents the states of the Indian federation and a lower house i.e. Lok Sabha, which represents the people of India as a whole. The Indian constitution provides for an independent Judiciary which is headed by the Supreme Court. The court’s mandate is to protect the constitution, to settle disputes between the central government and the states, inter-state disputes, to nullify any central or state laws that go against the constitution and protect fundamental rights of citizens, issuing writs or their enforcement, in case of violation.
The governments, union or state, are formed through elections held every five years (unless otherwise specified), by parties that claim a majority of members in their respective lower houses (Lok Sabha in centre and Vidhan Sabha in states). India had its first general election in 1951, which was won by the Indian National Congress, a political party that went on to dominate the successive elections up until 1977, when the first non-Congress government was formed for the first time in independent India. The 1990s saw the end of single party domination and rise of coalition governments. The elections for the 17th Lok Sabha, held from April 2014 to May 2014, once again brought back single-party rule in the country, with the Bharatiya Janata Party being able to claim a majority in the Lok Sabha.